Dr. Robert Baugher DVM
Countryside Veterinary Clinic
DAIRY COWS & HEIFERSABOMASAL ULCERS
Signs are black or darker than normal manure, +/-painful, off-feed, gas pings in various areas onright and left side of abdomen, drop in milk production.Can be secondary to a right abomasal torsion or primary from acidosis. Treatment:-Pump cow with 5 gallon warm water and 1 lb. Magnalax powder then give 5 pink pills 2x a day for 3 days more.-Give 15cc Vitamin K 1x a day for 3 days in muscle-Offer free-choice hay for 3 days if possible
COLIFORM (TOXIC) MASTITIS
24cc Polyflex (80 mls sterile H2O in bottle) IM 1x for 4 days 2cc Oxytocin IM and strip at each milking and then strip often during day Spectramast LC in quarter at night 1x a day for 3-8 days 5 Aspirin orally 2x a day for 3 days 15cc Banamine IM 2x a day for 2 days 2 liters Hypertonic salin IV 1x a day if sick or dehydrated offer plenty of fresh water and feedPrevention Protocol:
Keep environment clean and dry (sand bedding should be used if possible for the dry cows, prefresh cows, and fresh cows) Milk clean dry teats using proper milking procedure (no water during milking and predip cows with a dip cup) J-5 E. coli vaccine 3 times annually (dry off, prefresh, and 5+ days after calvingPrognosis and outcome:
Very important with this disease to catch early as this directly influences success rate. If in multiple quarters or cow is down when found, poor prognosis.If in one quarter and found early: 1/4 of cows will return to normal in all 4 quarters (SCC may be elevated for that lactation in recovered quarter) 1/4 of cows will basically dry off in all 4 quarters and become a cull or early dry off 1/2 of cowswill dry off in the affected quarter but return to normal milk in the other 3 (affected quarter should be left alone for the lactation and dry treated at dry off with the other quarters as some of these will return to milk next lactation)
TOPICAL TREATMENT OF HAIRY WARTS
(adapted from J.K. Shearer DVM.,M.S.)
Terramycin-343 powder (102.4 grams oxytet per packet) mixed at 1 packet per gallon of distilled water. Tub of tetracycline hydrochloride powder @ 4 scoops per gallon of distilled water.Treatment Procedure:
Spray feet clean with pressure washer or hose. Use freshly mixed antibiotic as a topical spray at the rate of 10-20cc per foot. Apply to heels and interdigital space or areas with visible lesions using a garden-type sprayer or other suitable spray treatment device.Suggested Treatment Regime:
Week 1 treat all feet of all cows once daily for 5 consecutive days (some early lesions may not be readily visible and can be stopped before they become a problem)Week 2-continue treatment of all cows with visible lesions onlyMonthly or every other month indefinitely-treat all cows once daily for 3 consecutive daysHerds with a low number of cows to treat can use Oxytet 100 injectable antibiotic as a topical treatment(10-20cc) applied to the wart instead of mixing up a large volume of mix.We recommend this process take place at a seperate time during the day from milking time. Water and antibiotics(oxytetracycline) have no place in a proper milking routine.OTHER METHODS OF DEALING WITH HAIRY WARTS:
Formaldehyde foot baths control warts when used properly, however it is a hazardous material and proper precautions need to be taken when handling/mixing it. It can carcinogenic in people. It comes in a 37% concentration and should be mixed at 3-5% with water which comes out to 1 gallon of formaldehyde per 20 gallons of water. Cows should be run through it once daily for 3 consecutive days then 2 x a week thereafter to control foot warts. Do not mix it stronger as this can actually burn the feet.Also available is a Treponema wart vaccine that can be given to calves at 6+ months old once every 21 days for 3 treatments then once every 6 months before the animals ever get the warts. This has been reported to be successful in prevention of foot warts in heifers. Results of vaccinating older cows and heifers with existing wart problems is less benefical at this time. Cost of the vaccine is about $2.75 per dose given.
-Off feed -Painful in front end(winged shoulders, grunting, humped up) and reluctant to move -Jugular pulses when head elevated -Stiff manure and +/- bloat -Temp of 102.8-103.8 classicTreatment:
Naxcel at 20cc IM 1x a day for 3 days Banimine at 15cc IM 1x a day for 2 days IV hypersaline(2) 1x a day until eating and drinking Magnet orally 5 MVT pink boluses and 1 Probios bolus 1x a day for 3 days
-this is a viral infection of the teats mainly in 1st calf heifers with a lot of udder edema -the 1st sign is a dry leathery teat that feels thicker-walled than normal. As the infection progresses the teat will discolor to purple or black and may completely fall off. The udder near the teat can also be affected. The teat is usually painful early on.-only prevention is to keep edema in 1st calf heifers to a minimum through appropriate exercise and a proper ration and to keep animal clean and dry at all timesTreatment:
-Bovi-Shield Gold 5+L5 vaccine 1x -apply Nolvasan ointment to teat 2x a day after milking -treat heifer for udder edema if warranted
Usually secondary to another health disorder that is causing reduced feed intake like RTP, metritis, mastitis, LDA, etc.If large or above on urine stick:
-IV dextrose(1) and IV hypersaline(1) 1x a day -20cc Methaplex (B vitamines with choline) 1x IV in dextrose or IM -Probios bolus orally 1 x a day -check for twisted syomach daily -15cc Predef once IV in dextrose in dextrose or IM(do not mix with B vitamins)If moderate or below on urine stick:
-No treatment required if cow eating well, milking well and looks good -Oral drench with 12 oz. propylene glycol 1x a day until eating well -Probios bolus orally 1x a day
-caused by bovine leukosis virus -transmitted from cow to cow by bloodSIGNS:
-swollen lymph nodes above udder, in pelvis(can cause paralysis in later lactation cows if large),front of stifle -eyes bulging from head suddenly -downer cow after calving for no other apparent reason -tumor in heart causing heart failure or in abomasum causing bleeding ulcer -more comman in older animals(4 years and above)NO TREATMENT
- Usually condemned at slaughter for "lymphosarcoma"
LISTERIOSIS (Circling Disease)
-a neurological disease that affects dairy cows, man and many other animals as well. It is a bacteria that lives in soil and the GI tract of mammals. It is spread from animal to animal by fecal-oral route. It is primarily a winter spread disease. The alkaline pH of spoiled silage enhances its growth. Outbreaks occur about 10-14 days after poor quality silage. Removal of bad feed stops the disease but it will reoccur if fed again.-clinical signs start as animals that are depressed, febrile, disoriented, and indifferent to their surroundings, and usually seperate themselves. They tend to crowd into corners or lean and push their head against stationary objects. If they walk, they stumble and move in a circle always in the same direction. Marked nasal discharge occurs and they appear to be blind. Facial paralysis with ear dropping is common in cattle. Cattle eventually go down and cannot rise with head bent to one side.Treatment is successful if early before cow goes down.
Treatment: -120cc oxytet 100 or 60cc oxytet 200 IV in dextrose asap -IV 10cc dexamethasone 1x if not pregnant -40cc Penicillin IM 2x a day for 5 days to follow up -IV hypersaline and dextrose daily if needed
-Always check udder for toxic, watery mastitis before treating for milk fever as this looks similar and calcium is not used in this treatment. Never give calcium to a cow with a temp at or above 103.-Slowly give IV 23% Calcium Gluconate (1) if standing up but weak, cold ears, or wobbly.-Slowly give IV 23% Calcium Gluconate and CMPK if down and cannot rise. (If not competent in giving IV then give Calcium Gluconate 23% subQ until someone else is available to give IV therapy above.) Give cow 30 minutes after treatment to rise on own before persuading her to get up.-Repeat CMPK and hypersaline every 6 hours if cow not up for a total of 1 day. Administer 20cc IV Re-covr and 10cc IV dexamethasone after calcium on second retreat.-Reassess diagnosis (mastitis, injury etc.), vet examination, or bloodwork if not up in 24 hours.PERITONITIS
-Infection of the lining of the abdomen of the cow -Cows usually are sick, can be painful, high fevers, and dehydrated. -Palpation reveals roughen surface in lining of abdomen and/or adhesions around organs. -Usually the result of a tear in uterus during calving, septicemia after an abdominal surgery, or some sort of trauma to the cow's body wall.Treatment:
20cc Penicillin 2x a day for 4 days IM 90cc Adspec IV in dextrose 1x a day for 4 days 15 Flunixin IV or IM 1x a day for 2 days IV hypertonic saline 1x a day until eating and drinking well
-Temperature usually 104 or greater, harsh lung sounds, rapid breathing in the absence of mastitis. -give 20cc Naxel or Excenel 1x a day for 4 days IM-if temp remains 104 or above after 24 hrs of Naxel/Excenel, recheck diagnosis, call veterinarian, or give Penicillin IM at 20cc 2x a day for 4 days and Adspec 90cc 1x a day IV in dextrose for 4 days. Also add 15cc Banamine 1x a day for 2 days and 20cc ReCovr 1x a day for 2 days. Milk withhold for Adspec is 4 days and test and meat withhold is 11 days.-if cow remains ill with signs of pneumonia but temp is below 103, continue supportive care with Naxel, asprin, IV fluids and get withholds out of cow so she can be shipped.
Give 2c oxytocin IMGive IV CMPK slowly if 2nd calf or olderAdminister 30cc Naxcel/Excenel IM 1x a day for 3 days if temp is 103 or above. Manually remove placenta on or after day 3 if comes easily. FLush uterus with 2 qt. warm water and 60cc povidone iodine solution if cervix open and uterus drainage foul.If temp remains at or above 103 after 24 hours on Naxel/Excenel then administer Ployflex IM at 24cc 1x a day for 4 days, Flunixin IV at 15cc 1x a day for 2 days, manually remove placenta if comes easily, and flush uterus. Continue to try removal of placenta every other day until removed. Milk withhold for this is 2 days after Polyflex treatment. Meat withhold of 6 days after Ployflex. If temp remains at or above 103 after Polyflex treatment, reevaluate diagnosis (mastitis, pneumonia, etc.)Give IV dextrose (1 btl) and IV hypersaline (1 btl) if eyes sunk or off feed, check for LDA.5cc Lutalyse on day 14 and 28 after calving if bad discharge or odor.
Clinical Signs: Diarrhea(foul smelling +/- blood or mucus) Fever (103-106) Off feed Dehydration Smooth rectal mucosal lining Usually occurs at times of stress (freshening, feed changes, new purchases, overcrowding) AbortionsSALMONELLA IS TRANSFERABLE TO PEOPLE SO WASH WELL AFTER HANDLING COWS !!!!! Salmonella is transferred by the fecal-oral route.
Vaccination with Pfizer's J-5 E. coli vaccine at dry off, 2-4 weeks before freshening and again 5-25 days after freshening for all cows and heifers or Endovac Bovi at dry off and 2-4 weeks before freshening. SANITATION!!!!!!!!!! Keep calving area clean between cows, especially if a cow shows signs of diarrhea. Also, control manure contamination of feed and water.
Naxel at 20cc IM 1x/day for 4 days 60cc Biosol orally 2x a day for 3 days. (Withhold meat 1 day and test milk) IV hypersaline and IV dextrose if dehydrated or not eating 1 Probios bolus orally 1x a day until eating
Give 6cc Biosol orally 2x for 3 days Give 4cc Naxcel IM 1x a day for 4 days Electrolytes if dehydrated or not eating Calve cows in clean environment and put calves in clean open environment.
-Off feed and depressed milk -Diarrhea (usually watery with whole feed passing through) -cold (subnormal temp) -dehydrated
-20cc Naxcel IM 1x a day for 3 days -15cc Banamine 1x a day for 3 days -IV hypersaline(2) 1x a day for 2 days -Give 5 MVT pink pills and 1 Probios bolus orally 1x a day for 2 days -check daily for LDA/RDAUDDER EDEMA TREATMENT
-give 15cc Furosemide IM 1x a day for 3 days -give 5cc Dexamethasone IM 1x a day for 3 days (can be in same syringe as above)-begin milking cows and heifer before freshening if udder suspensory ligament is in jeopardy of damage from large swollen udder
-cause is not known for sure but thought to be a form of bacteria -no vaccine available for prevention -can come at any time during the year -usually coincides with severe weather changes or ration changes -usually more severe in first calf heifersTreatment:
-5 Toxisorb (antidiarrhea) boluses and 1 Probios bolus orally 1x a day for 3 days if severe or bloody -Hypertonic Saline 1x a day if dehdratedGeneral overall treatment for weak newborns
-Give 2 1/2cc Naxcel 1x a day for 4 days -Give 2cc ReCovr (Tripelelamine) 2x 12 hrs. apart -Give 2cc Vitamin B Complex 1x -Keep calf warm using a heat lamp etc. -Tube feed if necessary -Optional: 500ml lactated ringers subQ in 3-4 sites behind the shoulder 1x a day as needed
- Over 1000 species/subspecies but typhimurium and dublin most common- Subclinical carriers in herd come under stress , shed it, and infect calves through environmental contamination - Can be contracted by people-- Be Careful and Wash Hands! - Signs: calves around 10-20 days of age are affected Depression is first sign and off milk Yellowish scours with or without blood and mucous Dehydration follows - Treatment: Biosol orally at 6cc 2x a day for 3 days Naxel IM at 2cc 1x a day for 3 days 2 quarts electrolytes and water 2x a day and milk replacer 1x a day for 1st two days then reverse for two days more
- Severe cases can also be given lactated ringers solution subQ 500ml in 2 or 3 sites for dehydration
Feed 1 gallon of colostrum within 6 hours of birth and another 2 quarts 12 hours laterBed freshening pens well in between each animal and remove all afterbirthDip calf's navel with 7% iodine as soon as possible after birthDuring problem periods: Give First Defense bolus orally to each calf within 12 hours of birth Vaccinate dry cows and steamup cows with scourguard 3KC Draw blood on calves 24 hrs. to 7 days to check antibody levelTreatment for Calf and Heifer Pneumonia
Any calf with temperature at or above 103 F Early in the course of the disease Nuflor- 3cc/100 lbs. in muscle days 1,3, and 5 Flunixin (Banamine)-1cc/100 lbs. in muscle days 1 and 3 ReCovr- 1cc/100 lbs. in muscle day 1 Take temperature on day 3 and if higher than earlier recorded temp substitute Micotil at 1.5cc/100 lbs. subQ in place of Nuflor and repeat Micotil a secound time 3 days later
-Give 10cc Spectam liquid orally 2x a day for 3 days.-Give normal milk feedings 2x a day and give electrolytes orally in between these two feedings(in 2 quarts of warm water). Do this for 3 days in a row or until scours go away.-Give 2 1/2 cc Naxcel in muscle 1x a day for 4 days. -Optional: Give 500cc lactated ringers subQ in 3-4 sites behind shoulder 1x a day as neededIf treatment is not working well or there are a lot of scouring calves, take five fecal samples (about a tablespoon is enough) from five different calves and refrigerate until they can be sent in for analysis. Treatment will be modified accordingly.